You'll probably find as I did that there's a LOT going on in this circuit in terms of components -- resistors, capacitors, phototransistor, speaker, and the two 555s. Check and double-check your wiring because it's a mess. I must be getting better at checking myself because the first time I applied power to this circuit, it worked. That doesn't happen often!
I'm including two videos here; the only difference between the two is the substitution of a 1 microfarad capacitor for a 10 microfarad. All other components were left alone. I did make a mistake in the video by stating I had the 100kohm and 50kohm resistors in series for the 150kohm called for, but I actually had to put two 85kohm in series for a total of 170kohms. That probably did affect the frequency of the alarm a bit since this value affects the pulse length for the 2nd 555 chip (the one that feeds into the 555 connected to the speaker). The change was probably negligible, though. I did make certain all capacitor values were the ones specified in the schematic on page 28. Here's the first video with the 10 microfarad capacitor inserted first:
I'd be curious to see any videos you might have if you attempt any of the variations specified on pages 28-29. Charles includes a bunch of substitute chips for the 555 that could be tried out -- these include 7555, 4047B, 74HC221, and a bunch more. But his explanation of why the 555 is still favored makes sense... you begin to work with a chip so much you just know its pinouts and its quirks. That said, the 556 sounds interesting -- two 555s on one chip, although he says its becoming difficult to find. I might try to hunt one down and retry this circuit a bit later.
Here's the short second video where I substituted the 1 microfarad capacitor for the 10 microfarad: